Epidemic- Coronavirus : Information, Symptoms, Cause and Treatment


Human coronavirus NL63 or HCV-NL63

Human Coronavirus NL63 or HCV-NL63 is a single-stranded RNA virus. It is one of the species of
coronavirus that was first discovered in late 2004 in a seven-month-old baby with bronchiolitis in
the Netherlands. However, this infective virus is an enveloped, positive-sense virus that enters its
host cell by the ACE2 receptor. Infection with the corona NL63 virus got varified worldwide, and it also has an association with the common diseases and symptoms. The illnesses that happen in it include severe lower respiratory tract contagion, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, croup, and
bronchiolitis. This virus is mostly found in children, elderly, and patients with acute respiratory illness. However, this virus has a seasonal connection with a temperate climate. The questionnaire by
scientists in Amsterdam gets a conclusion that this virus has a presence in approximately 4.7%
of common respiratory diseases.
Moreover, after further studies, it is confirmed that the HCV-NL63 is not an emerging virus, but
rather one that continually circulates in humans. Additionally, this virus took birth from infected
palm civets and bats.


A questionnaire in signs of HCV-NL63 comes with the conclusion that it has the following signs
that include:

  • Fever,
  • Cough,
  • Rhinitis,
  • Sore throat,
  • Hoarseness,
  •  Bronchitis,
  • bronchiolitis,
  • Pneumonia, and
  • Croup

However, these symptoms firstly reported in the patients without secondary infection.
The other study in children who have lower respiratory tract infections found that it was more
commonly found in outpatients than hospitalized patients.
Human coronavirus also suggests that it is a common cold virus similar to HCV-229E and HCV-OC43, which cause
less critical symptoms. However, in NL63, croup has a high frequency of infection.

It came in sight that NL63 spread through person to person transmission. Likewise, it spread
through close personal contact as well. Moreover, it is a critical virus that can survive out of the human body
for a week or in aqueous solutions at room temperature and three hours on dry surfaces.
The people who mostly suffered from this virus are children under the age of 5, the elderly, and
immunocompromised individuals. For instance, facts show that this virus mainly has a seasonal
incidence that occurs most frequently in the winter in temperate climates.
Additionally, it has no preference in the most extreme tropical climate.


Human coronavirus seems complicated for experts to distinguish between the symptoms of HCV-NL63 and other
symptoms caused by a human virus. However, it makes the diagnosis and detection complex.
The most common method to detect the virus is a reverse transcription-polymerase chain
reaction of samples from a nasopharyngeal swab. Blood serum testing for antibodies and viral culture also helps to confirm the infection.


The CDC (Center for Disease Control) in the USA gives several measures to prevent yourself
from the virus HCV-NL63 is:

  • Often wash your hands with soap and water,
  • Avoid close contact with sick individuals, and
  • Do not touch the eyes, mouth, or nose without washing your hands.

The HCV-NL63 virus treatment depends on the severity of symptomology. Most of the infections
will go away on their own, whether they are mild or severe. However, such symptoms may be minimized with the pain reliever, fever medication, a hot shower, or by use of a humidifier.
Whereas, antiviral treatment is necessary for infected patients that end up in the ICU due to
acute respiratory infection. FDA approved Intravenous immunoglobulin is an HCV-NL63 inhibitor
that also treats primary immune deficiency, Kawasaki disease, or RSV.

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